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Owen Williams - Plagiarism

Owen Williams

Plagiarism is the appropriation of passages, either word for word or in substance, from the writings of another and the incorporation of those passages as one's own in written work offered for credit. This very explanation, for example, with the noted exception of this particular sentence, is almost entirely plagiarized. It is always assumed that the written work for credit is the student's own unless proper acknowledgment is given the original author by the use of quotation marks and footnotes or other explanatory inserts. This includes the copying of lab reports and homework, or the unchanged use of the essential ideas or conclusions of such work, as well as the footnoted use of any and all other sources of ideas and phrases. Students may free themselves from uncertainties in the matter of plagiarism by following the general rules listed below:


  1. Direct quotation. When the exact words of an authority consulted are used, every quoted word must be placed within quotation marks and each quoted passage must have attached to it a footnote reference or other citation.
  2. Indirect quotation. When summarizing or paraphrasing the words of an authority consulted, give an exact footnote reference or in-text citation to each passage which is summarized. Introduce all summaries by such signaling phrases as "According to . . . ," or "As . . . suggests."
  3. General acknowledgment of indebtedness. When general use is made of the thoughts, ideas, or information to be found in another person's work, always attach a reference number and footnote to the place in your paper where indebtedness occurs; if indebtedness occurs in several successive paragraphs, state that fact in the footnotes.
  4. Footnote form. Every footnote reference must identify the source used and give the page on which the borrowed material may be found (see the departmental Style Sheet or refer to your handbook).
  5. Bibliography. Append to each piece of written work submitted a complete list of all authorities (books, periodicals, encyclopedias, etc.) which have been consulted, even if no specific reference is made to them in the paper itself.