In this seminar we will come to appreciate how women from premodern England, c.1140-1673, fashioned independent and meaningful lives from challenging circumstances: and how they ensured that they would leave behind stories to be told. We begin with Christina of Markyate, a young woman who fled home to avoid a forced marriage and then maintained her independence by negotiating with a series of determined men. We end with Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, a woman who believed in the power of science and also in the power of fashion (her outfits were amazing). Dismissed by Virginia Woolf as "Mad Madge," she nonetheless managed to compose numerous plays, to pioneer scientific inquiry, and to write utopian fiction.
This course questions traditional periodizations of study by shooting the medieval/ Renaissance divide and by considering arguments of advance and decline for women. Does the rise of the university, for example, bring a diminution of educational opportunities for women? Is the Middle Ages to be seen, as some feminist historians have seen it, as a feminine 'golden age'? What might be the influence of female saint’s lives, such as those of the Golden Legend, upon real women? Does the coming of the 'Renaissance' reduce female options to marriage or marriage? We might consider here the writings of Protestant Elizabeth I and embroideries of Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. We will study texts featuring women who occupy difficult but magical spaces: the anchoress; the pregnant woman. We might read Trotula texts (female-authored gynaecological manuals), a manual for female recluses (Ancrene Wisse), a mystical text by a woman who uses her body as a spiritual laboratory (Julian of Norwich) and best-selling texts by Renaissance women who will not survive pregnancy. And what do we make of the nun-nostalgia that continues right through the English Renaissance to our own time; what are the possibilities of female collective living? And what are the possibilities, then, and now, for female travel? We’ll see how the first autobiographer in the English language, Margery Kempe, managed to traverse the face of the known world, avoid injury, and return to compose her text.
This seminar will pay particular attention to writing, helping with the transition to university-quality essay writing. Assessment will thus be by a series of essays, and there will be plentiful feedback; there will be no midterm or final. Attendance: please let me know by e-mail of any intended absences due to religious holidays, illnesses, or other causes.